5: Anticipation, Follow Through, and Overlap

  • Homework crits.

  • Q&A on ASK reading to 167.

  • Dupicate Poses: 

Don't use the same pose twice. You can use a duplicate pose as a start point but using the same pose over and over will make your animations feel stiff and robotic.

  • Twinning: 

Watch out for symmetrical poses. Check this post atanimationtipsandtricks.com for further info. 2 more atanimatorisland.com Second one here

  • Reference: 

Getty ImagesBBC Motion GalleryFlip Hands More Hands.

  • check out this post by Francis Jasmin.
  • Blending IK/FK: 

prerequisite Hamish McKenzie's zooToolbox.mel, zooAlign.mel specifically.  Setup the pose in FK and snap the IK and Pole Vector controls to the FK controls and make the easy switch.

  • Anticipation: 

"This movement prepares the audience for a major action the character is about to perform, such as, starting to run, jump or change expression. A dancer does not just leap off the floor. A backwards motion occurs before the forward action is executed. The backward motion is the anticipation. A comic effect can be done by not using anticipation after a series of gags that used anticipation. Almost all real action has major or minor anticipation such as a pitcher's wind-up or a golfers' back swing. Feature animation is often less broad than short animation unless a scene requires it to develop a characters personality." -Frank Thomas and Ollie Johnston.  The action before the action.  Generally the greater the action the greater the anticipation.  Video by Digital Tutors "Adding Anticipation to Your Animations".

  • Follow Through and Overlap: 

"When the main body of the character stops all other parts continue to catch up to the main mass of the character, such as arms, long hair, clothing, coat tails or a dress, floppy ears or a long tail (these follow the path of action). Nothing stops all at once. This is follow through. Overlapping action is when the character changes direction while his clothes or hair continues forward. The character is going in a new direction, to be followed, a number of frames later, by his clothes in the new direction. "DRAG," in animation, for example, would be when Goofy starts to run, but his head, ears, upper body, and clothes do not keep up with his legs. In features, this type of action is done more subtly. Example: When Snow White starts to dance, her dress does not begin to move with her immediately but catches up a few frames later. Long hair and animal tail will also be handled in the same manner. Timing becomes critical to the effectiveness of drag and the overlapping action." -Frank Thomas and Ollie Johnston.  Because of weight and momentum objects down a chain begin and end a move at an offset starting from the root down.  Think of the wagging tail of a happy dog.  Video by Digital Tutors "Follow Through and Overlapping Animation".  Check out Keith Lango's "Zen of Lead and Follow" as well as "offsetting keys vs. changing shapes."


  • Floating Pendulum Assignment (See this example) 150-250 frames in an orthographic side view. Deliver Quicktime Movie

  • Finish walk cycle in place. 150-200 frame turntable animation. Deliver Quicktime Movie

  • 3 new poses delivered in a 3 frame quicktime movie

  • Read to page 212 in ASK.